(email questions/comments to firstname.lastname@example.org).
Ted Wright -- last update 12/27/2004 & 12/30 & 1/13 (Earthquake.html)
Copyright 2004 -- Collinsville,
By Huge Waves in 9 Countries
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Sunday Dec. 26, 2004
Under Indian Ocean
to the U.S. Geological Survey the following are the strongest earthquakes since
1. May 22, 1960 (9.5 magnitude) Chile
2. March 28, 1964 (9.2 magnitude) Alaska (Prince William Sound)
3. March 9, 1957 (9.1 magnitude) Alaska (Andreanof Islands)
4. Dec. 26, 2004 (9.0 magnitude) Sumatra, Indonesia.
4. Nov. 4, 1952 (9.0 magnitude) Russia (Kamchatka peninsula)
6. Jan. 31, 1906 (8.8 magnitude), off the coast of Ecuador
7. Feb. 4, 1965 (8.7 magnitude) Alaska (Rat Islands)
8. Aug. 15, 1950 (8.6 magnitude) Tibet.
9. Feb. 3, 1923 (8.5 magnitude) Kamchatka.
10. Feb. 1, 1938 (8.5 magnitude) Banda Sea, Indonesia.
11. Oct. 13, 1963 (8.5 magnitude) Kuril Islands.
from the USGS website:
The devastating megathrust earthquake of December 26th, 2004 occurred on the
interface of the India and Burma plates and was cause by the release of stresses
that develop as the India plate subducts beneath the overriding Burma plate.
The India plate begins its decent into the mantle at the Sunda trench which
lies to the west of the earthquake's epicenter. The trench is the surface expression
of the India-Burma plate interface.
The tectonics of the region is complex and involves the interaction of the Australian,
Sunda and Eurasian plates in addition to the India and Burma plate. The India
and Australia plates move northeastwards at a rate of about 6 cm/year relative
to the Burma plate. This results in oblique convergence at the Sunda trench.
Some of this oblique motion is accommodated on the right-lateral transform faults
and rifts that separate the Burma and Sunda plates.
of larger aftershocks following the megathrust earthquake show that approximately
1000 km of the plate boundary slipped as a result of the earthquake. Aftershocks
are distributed along much of the shallow plate interface and primarily extend
northwards of the epicenter to the Andaman Islands.
The worlds largest recorded
earthquakes were all megathrust events and occur where one tectonic plate
subducts beneath another. These include: the magnitude 9.5 1960 Chile earthquake,
the magnitude 9.2 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake, the magnitude
9.1 1957 Andreanof, Alaska earthquake, and the magnitude 9.0 1952 Kamchatka
earthquake. As with the recent event, megathrust earthquakes often generate
large tsunamis that can cause damage over a much wider area than is directly
effected by ground shaking near the earthquake's rupture.
article below (by my Mother with letters from Mel & Gracie Evans)
provides some insight from those who rode out that 9.2 earthquake near
Anchorage, Alaska. -- Ted
Estimates Show Over 22,000 Lives Lost From Tsunamis
time for the earthquake was Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 07:58:50 AM at epicenter
in the Indian Ocean. Here in North America, it was still Saturday, December
25, 2004 at 06:58:50 PM (CST) - Central Standard Time.
30th Update: The estimated death toll has risen daily & is now up to 114,000
in 12 countries.
a Reuters Web Story Jan. 13, 2005
killed at least 157,000 people, including 105,000 in Indonesia, 30,000
in Sri Lanka and 15,000 in India. Many of the more than 5,000 killed in
Thailand were foreign tourists, a large number of them from Europe."